martedì 2 febbraio 2010

Com'e' finita? - Part IV: Gli impegni espressi dai Paesi Industrializzati

55 Paesi - tra cui l'Europa e i suoi 27 Stati membri, Cina e Stati Uniti - hanno rispettato l'impegno di sottoporre i propri target di mitigazione delle emissioni a medio termine (2020). Insieme sono responsabili del 78% delle emissioni globali.

Ecco gli impegni dei Paesi industrializzati come risultano ad oggi dal sito dell'UNFCCC ("Appendix I, Quantified economy-wide emissions targets for 2020"): Australia, Canada, Croazia, Unione Europea, Giappone, Kazakistan, Nuova Zelanda, Norvegia, Russia e Stati Uniti.
Australia: -5% up to -15% or -25% (base year 2000)

Australia will reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 25% on 2000 levels by 2020 if the world agrees to an ambitious global deal capable of stabilising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at 450 ppm CO2-eq or lower. Australia will unconditionally reduce our emissions by 5% below 2000 levels by 2020, and by up to 15% by 2020 if there is a global agreement which falls short of securing atmospheric stabilisation at 450 ppm CO2-eq and under which major developing economies commit to substantially restrain emissions and advanced economies take on commitments comparable to Australia's.

Canada: -17% (base year 2005)

Canada will align his targets with the final economy-wide emissions target of the United States in enacted legislation.

Croatia: -5% (base year 1990)

Temporary target for Croatia. Upon the accession of Croatia to the European Union, the Croatian target shall be replaced by arrangement in line with and part of the European Union mitigation effort.

EU¹ and its Member States: -20%/30% (base year 1990)

As part of a global and comprehensive agreement for the period beyond 2012, the EU reiterates its conditional offer to move to a 30% reduction by 2020 compared to 1990 levels, provided that other developed countries commit themselves to comparable emission reductions and that developing countries contribute adequately according to their responsibilities and respective capabilities.

¹Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom) acting in common. Currently, not all EU Member States are Annex I Parties.

Japan: - 25% (base year 1990)

This is premised on the establishment of a fair and effective international framework in which all major economies participate and on agreement by those economies on ambitious targets.

Kazakhstan: -15% (base year 1992)

New Zealand: -10/20% (base year 1990)

New Zealand is prepared to take on a responsibility target for greenhouse gas emissions reductions of between 10 per cent and 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2020, if there is a comprehensive global agreement. This means that: the global agreement sets the world on a pathway to limit temperature rise to not more than 2° C; developed countries make comparable efforts to those of New Zealand; advanced and major emitting developing countries take action fully commensurate with their respective capabilities; there is an effective set of rules for land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); and there is full recourse to a broad and efficient international carbon market.

Norway: -30/40% (base year: 1990)

As part of a global and comprehensive agreement for the period beyond 2012 where major emitting Parties agree on emissions reductions in line with the 2 degrees Celsius target, Norway will move to a level of 40% reduction for 2020.

Russian Federation: -15/25* (base year 1990)

Level of reductions will depend on the conditions that an appropriate allowance for the Russian forests in the context of the contribution to the implementation of commitments to reduce anthropogenic emissions, and adoption of legally binding commitments to reduce anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases by all major emitters.

United States of America: -17% (base year 2005)

In the range of 17%, in conformity with anticipated U.S. energy and climate legislation, recognizing that the final target will be reported to the Secretariat in light of enacted legislation. The pathway set forth in pending legislation would entail a 30% reduction in 2025 and a 42% reduction in 2030, in line with the goal to reduce emissions 83% by 2050.

Veronica Caciagli
Climate Change Officer
British Consulate General Milan

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